Effect of COVID-19 Vaccination on the In-Hospital Prognosis of Patients Admitted during Delta and Omicron Waves in Italy
All-cause mortality related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection has declined from the first wave to subsequent waves, probably through vaccination programs and the availability of effective antiviral therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on the prognosis of infected patients. Overall, we enrolled 545 subjects during the Delta variant wave and 276 ones during the Omicron variant wave. Data were collected concerning vaccination status, clinical parameters, comorbidities, lung involvement, laboratory parameters, and pharmacological treatment. Outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-day all-cause mortality. Overall, the final sample included 821 patients with a mean age of 62 ± 18 years [range 18–100], and 59% were men. Vaccinated patients during the Delta wave were 37% (over ¾ with two doses), while during the Omicron wave they were 57%. Vaccinated patients were older (68 vs. 57 years), and 62% had at least one comorbidity Admission to the ICU was 20%, and the mortality rate at 30 days was 14%. ICU admissions were significantly higher during the Delta wave than during Omicron (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–3.1), while all-cause mortality did not differ. Unvaccinated patients had a higher risk of ICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.1) and 30-day all-cause mortality (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.7). Results were consistent for both Delta and Omicron variants. Overall, vaccination with at least two doses was associated with a reduced need for ICU admission. Even one shot of the vaccine was associated with a significantly reduced 30-day mortality.
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