Association of COVID-19 with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractEmerging evidence suggests that coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may lead to a wide range of post-acute sequelae outcomes, including new onset of diabetes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes in survivors of COVID-19. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease and clinical trial registries for studies reporting the association of COVID-19 and diabetes. Search dates were December 2019–October 16, 2022. Two investigators independently assessed studies for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. We estimated the effect of COVID-19 on incident diabetes by random-effects meta-analyses using the generic inverse variance method. We identified 8 eligible studies consisting of 4,270,747 COVID-19 patients and 43,203,759 controls. Median age was 43 years (interquartile range, IQR 35–49), and 50% were female. COVID-19 was associated with a 66% higher risk of incident diabetes (risk ratio, 1.66; 95% CI 1.38; 2.00). The risk was not modified by age, sex, or study quality. The median risk of bias assessment was 7. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, COVID-19 was associated with higher risk for developing new onset diabetes among survivors. Active monitoring of glucose dysregulation after recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is warranted.