Reevaluation of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic antibodies and mRNA-vaccine antisera using FcR- and ACE2-positive cells
AbstractMany therapeutic antibodies (Abs) and mRNA vaccines, both targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein), have been developed and approved in order to combat the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In consideration of these developments, a common concern has been the potential for Ab-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection caused by inoculated or induced Abs. Although the preventive and therapeutic effects of these Abs are obvious, little attention has been paid to the influence of the remaining and dwindling anti-S-protein Abs in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that certain monoclonal Abs (mAbs) approved as therapeutic neutralizing anti-S-protein mAbs for human usage have the potential to cause ADE in a narrow range of Ab concentrations. Although sera collected from mRNA-vaccinated individuals exhibited neutralizing activity, some sera gradually exhibited dominance of ADE activity in a time-dependent manner. None of the sera examined exhibited neutralizing activity against infection with the Omicron strain. Rather, some ADE of Omicron infection was observed in some sera. These results suggest the possible emergence of adverse effects caused by these Abs in addition to the therapeutic or preventive effect.